"Members of the famed "Harlem Hellfighters" (369th Infantry Regiment), waving from the deck of a ship as they arrive home from their World War I tour of duty." Paul Thompson. Courtesy of National Archives.
"Charleston Jukebox - 3: James Reese Europe and the Harlem Hellfighters." YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=DKoGM4a7Nw8. Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.
This is a copy of an audio recording of the Harlem Hellfighters band. We used a piece of the song "Memphis Blues" recorded by the Harlem Hellfighters Band under the direction of one of the 369th Infantry, James Europe.
Digital Public Library of America, https://dp.la/primary-source-sets/african-american-soldiers-in-world-war-i/sources/ 838. Accessed 13 May 2018.
We used a primary source photograph of the African American troops with French children.
DuBois, William E., editor. The Crisis, Volumes 15-18. Crisis Publishing Company, 1917, https://books.google.com. Accessed 2 May 2018.
This book is a collection of "The Crisis" magazine. In it is the French directive that was sent out because of pressure from the American military to basically instate "Jim Crow Laws" on the black American troops there in France.
Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/. Accessed 1 Feb. 2018.
We used two primary source photos having to do with President Woodrow Wilson from this source.
National Archives, The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, https://www.archives.gov/. Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.
We found several primary source photographs from this source.
National Park Service, https://www.nps.gov/hafe/learn/historyculture/w-e-b-dubois.htm. Accessed 13 May 2018.
From this website, we used a picture of W.E.B. DuBois.
Williams, Chad. "African Americans and World War I." Africana Age: Africa and African Diasporan Transformations in the 20th Century, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, 2011, exhibitions.nypl.org/africanaage/essay-world-wari. html. Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.
Three primary source photographs were obtained from this website.
Georgetown Law Library, guides.ll.georgetown.edu. Accessed 15 May 2018.
We used this site to learn about the time period of desegregation.
Alchin, Linda. “Effects of WW1 on America.” United States History for Kids, Siteseen Limited, 1 July 2014, www.american- historama.org/1913-1928-ww1-prohibition-era/impact-ww1-on-america.htm. Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.
We were able to get many basic facts about World War I from this website.
Brown, Charlene. "U.S. Race Riots." 1914-1918 Online International Encyclopedia of the First World War, 8 October, 2014, https://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/us_race_riots. Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.
This was a secondary source that had many interesting facts to use in pages like the conflict.
Clark, James. "Untold Stories Of The Harlem Hellfighters Of World War I." Task and Puropose, 20 Apr. 2017, https:// taskandpurpose.com/harlem-hellfighters-369th-infantry-regiment-untold-story/. Accessed 25 Jan. 2018
This was a secondary source that had many interesting facts to use on the conflict page of our website.
Dayan, Joshua. Obelisk of honoring the 369th Regiment. 2017, Private collection. https://www.theclio.com/web/entry id=48934. Accessed 10 Dec. 2017.
Secondary source photograph of the 369th Regiment Memorial Obelisk erected in 2008 in Harlem.
Dorney, Carolyn. "WWI heroes: Two Morristown Men Won Medals with Harlem Hellfighters, Famed African American Unit." The Morristown Green.com, North Jersey History and Genealogy Center, https://morristowngreen.com/2017/02/17/ wwi-heroes-two-morristown-men-won-medals-with-harlem-hellfighters-famed-african-american-unit/. Accessed 1 Feb. 2018.
The two men were, of course, Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts. This article told details that were helpful in understanding what had happen to make them “heroes.” Though this is a secondary source, it had primary source photographs that we used and a primary source newspaper article that interviewed both men at the time and appeared in The Jerseyman in 1919.
Gates Jr., Henry L. "Who Were the Harlem Hellfighters?" PBS, PBS, www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to- cross/history/who-were-the-harlem-hellfighters/. Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.
This secondary source had some more information on the Harlem Hellfighters that we did not know already, and also it backed up some prior information that we have seen on other websites.
Harris, Bill. The Hellfighters of Harlem: African-American Soldiers Who Fought for the Right to Fight for Their Country. New York, Carroll and Graf Publishers, 2002.
The book had several stories we hadn't read in other resources. We used some of the information about Colonel William Hayward.
Heredia, David. Heroes of Color: The Harlem Hellfighters. Heredia Designs, 2015, https://www.heroesofcolor.com/ episodes.html. Accessed 7 Feb. 2018.
The video clip we used from Heroes of Color: The Harlem Hellfighters was chosen to help illustrate the racism that these men were dealing with at the time.
This source was used to obtain a photograph of a drawing entitled the Harlem Hellfighters. The drawing is from a children's book about the 369th Infantry.
Kelly, Kate. "Harlem Hellfighters: Black Soldiers in World War I." America Comes Alive, https://americacomesalive.com/ 2015/02/05/harlem-hellfighters-black-soldiers-world-war/. Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.
We used this website for basic information about black soldiers during World War I. Linnehan, Bryon. "The Harlem Hellfighters: A 104 Year Retrospective." US Army, 18 June 2017, https://www.army.mil/article/ 189579/the_harlem_hellfighters_a_104_year_ retrospective. Accessed 8 Feb. 2018.
We used this secondary source for a paragraph on the impact page of our website for a retrospective that shows the current Hellfighters.
Maps of World, https://www.mapsofworld.com/. Accessed 15 May 2018. We used this for the map of the trenches in Europe on the Compromise page.
Menard, Orville D. "Lest We Forget: The Lynching of Will Brown, Omaha’s 1919 Race Riot." Nebraska State Historical Society, 2010, https://history.nebraska.gov/sites/history.nebraska.gov/files/doc/publications/NH2010Lynching.pdf. Accessed 15 Feb. 2018.
From reading this article, we had a much clearer understanding of the "red summer" race riots of 1919. We were able to get a primary source photograph of a mob burning a black man after they had lynched him and drug his body through town.
Myers, Walter D., and Bill Miles. The Harlem Hellfighters: When Pride Met Courage. New York, Harper Collins Publishers, 2006.
This book covered everything about the Harlem Hellfighters, but we specifically used it to understand the race riots of 1919 which was known as the Red Summer.
National Guard Bureau. US Department of Defense. https://www.defense.gov/About/Military-Departments/Military- Service-Seals/. Accessed 1 Feb. 2018.
We used this secondary source to obtain an image of the "Department of Defence - National Guard Bureau" patch. Nelson, Peter N. A More Unbending Battle: The Harlem Hellfighters' Struggle for Freedom in WWI and Equality at Home. New York, Basic Civitas, 2009.
It helped us understand what the Harlem Hellfighters experienced overseas.
Patterson, Ken. "Black History Month: Heroes Of World War I Harlem Hellfighters." Black Matters US, 2 Feb. 2017, https:// blackmattersus.com/28491-black-history-month-heroes-of-world-war-i-harlem-hellfighters/. Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.
This secondary site has mainly basic information and a photograph.
"Preview: "Men of Bronze" - 1977 on C-SPAN3 Memorial Day Weekend." C-SPAN, 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=7mSar31_OmU. Accessed 8 Feb. 2018.
We felt that this clip was impactful because it was a personal interview with one of the Harlem Hellfighters that helped take Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts’ bodies off to the battlefield after the German raid.
Pruitt, Sarah. "WWI Hero Henry Johnson Finally Receives Medal of Honor." History, 2 June 2015, www.history.com/news/ wwi-hero-henry-johnson-finally-receives-medal-of-honor. Accessed 8 Feb. 2018.
This secondary site gave us more information on the most famous of the Hellfighters, Sgt. Henry Johnson.
Sammons, Jeffrey T. and John H. Morrow. Harlem's Rattlers and the Great War: The Undaunted 369th Regiment and the African American Quest for Equality. Lawrence, University Press of Kansas, 2014.
Besides general information we also found some great quotes from the book.
This video was really very blatant about the fact that the 369th Regiment "were set up to fail by their own government." The parts of this video that we chose to use helps to illustrate not only what they faced but also the impact of what they were doing.
"The Harlem Hellfighters: Remembering the 369th Infantry Regiment." History, History, 2015, cdn.history.com/sites/ 2/2015/11/HarlemHellfighters_Guide_revise_FIN.pdf. Accessed 14 Dec. 2017.
Though this educational guide contained primary source photographs and other interesting information, it was mainly used to create the timeline on our website.
"The second battle of the Marne." The Story of the American Expeditionary Forces , 1998, www.worldwar1.com/dbc/ 2marne.htm. Accessed 7 May 2018.
This secondary source clarified dates on the timeline page,
Wang, Hansi L. "The Harlem Hellfighters: Fighting Racism In The Trenches Of WWI." NPR: Code Switch, https://www.npr. org/sections/codeswitch/2014/04/01/294913379/the-harlem-hellfighters-fighting-racism-in-the-trenches-of-wwi. Accessed 16 Nov. 2017.
We used this website to find basic information. It also helped us to understand what it was like to face racism.